【32450新蒲京网站】springcloud实践(二)之api网关

2019-10-23 03:25 来源:未知

zuul是什么?

  • front door. API Gateway.Zuul is a JVM based router and server side load balancer by Netflix.
  • 富有乞求的输入。
  • As an edge service application, Zuul is built to enable dynamic routing, monitoring, resiliency and security. 作为边界应用服务,zuul能促成动态路由、监察和控制、弹性与安全性。
  • 用groovy编写。

Netflix uses Zuul for the following:

Authentication 认证
Insights 洞察力
Stress Testing 压力测试
Canary Testing 金丝雀测试
Dynamic Routing 动态路由
Service Migration 服务迁移
Load Shedding 减载
Security 安全
Static Response handling 静态响应处理
Active/Active traffic management

若果之后想设计网关,可坚决守住地方实行対飚设计。

zuul 须要管理进程爬山涉水

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使用注意事项

  1. If you need your routes to have their order preserved you need to use a YAML file as the ordering will be lost using a properties file.假设你愿意依据书写顺序来实行路由法规,则必得利用YAML文件,无法应用properties

Embedded Zuul Reverse Proxy

使用代理,方便前端调用后端服务,制止COLANDS(跨域财富访问)和权杖难点,

  • @EnableZuulProxy
  • The proxy uses Ribbon to locate an instance to forward to via discovery, and all requests are executed in a hystrix command, so failures will show up in Hystrix metrics, and once the circuit is open the proxy will not try to contact the service.代理通过劳务意识调用服务,通过ribbon定位实例,全数须要通过hystrix命令情势来施行。退步新闻都会在征采在hystrix指标种类中,后生可畏旦步向熔断形式,代理将无法访问服务。
  • 最少须求集成discovery client,如eureka

Zuul Http Client

The default HTTP client used by zuul is now backed by the Apache HTTP Client instead of the deprecated Ribbon RestClient.

To use RestClient or to use the okhttp3.OkHttpClient set
ribbon.restclient.enabled=true 
or 
ribbon.okhttp.enabled=true 

当今私下认可使用apache client.

Cookies and Sensitive Headers

对cookie和headers敏感,正是说能够制定headers的准则来过滤乞请。Spring Cloud Netflix 1.1 以上版本才有此功能。

 zuul:
  routes:
    users:
      path: /myusers/**
      sensitiveHeaders: Cookie,Set-Cookie,Authorization  # blacklist,如果不过滤,则须显式设为空。
      url: https://downstream

set globally by setting zuul.sensitiveHeaders      

Strangulation Patterns and Local Forwards

使用如何由老版本向新本子?

  • 平抑格局(使其日益窒息的方法)跋山涉水的近义词蒸蒸日上部分调用老应用,大器晚成部分调用新利用。
  • hystrix也可以提供调节新老应用的切换

Uploading Files through Zuul

小文件能够由此zuul proxy,大文件通过 Spring DispatcherServlet。

Query String Encoding

The result can be different than the original input if it was encoded using Javascript’s encodeURIComponent() method for example. While this causes no issues in most cases, some web servers can be picky with the encoding of complex query string.

zuul:
  forceOriginalQueryStringEncoding: true

Note: This special flag only works with SimpleHostRoutingFilter and you loose the ability to easily override query parameters with RequestContext.getCurrentContext().setRequestQueryParams(someOverriddenParameters) since the query string is now fetched directly on the original HttpServletRequest.

Disable Zuul Filters

暗中认可会接受过多filters,可选择如下方式禁止

set zuul.

zuul.SendResponseFilter.post.disable=true

Zuul Timeouts

  • ==zuul在利用服务意识和路由时,需铺排超时参数如下爬山涉水==
  • If Zuul is using service discovery than you need to configure these timeouts via Ribbon properties, ribbon.ReadTimeout and ribbon.SocketTimeout.

  • If you have configured Zuul routes by specifying URLs than you will need to use zuul.host.connect-timeout-millis and zuul.host.socket-timeout-millis.

Rewriting Location header

If Zuul is fronting a web application then there may be a need to re-write the Location header when the web application redirects through a http status code of 3XX。==当通过3XX重定向时,须要重写header,不然会重定向到web url并非zuul url.==

重写 filter

import org.springframework.cloud.netflix.zuul.filters.post.LocationRewriteFilter;
...

@Configuration
@EnableZuulProxy
public class ZuulConfig {
    @Bean
    public LocationRewriteFilter locationRewriteFilter() {
        return new LocationRewriteFilter();
    }
}

==Note==:不必然适应全数情状,万黄金年代就是要重定向到表面url.

Zuul Developer Guide

The Zuul Servlet

Zuul is implemented as a ==Servlet==. For the general cases, Zuul is ==embedded into the Spring Dispatch mechanism==. This allows Spring MVC to be in control of the routing.
zuul是servlet.zuul嵌入springd的伸手转载机制,这样spring mvc由它来调节路由。

zuul经常配备缓存伏乞,当大文件上传时例外。

by default:/zuul. zuul.servlet-path

Zuul RequestContext

RequestContext

  • 恳请数据保存在ThreadLocal中,Information about where to route requests, errors and the actual HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse are stored there.
  • RequestContext继承了ConcurrentHashMap

@EnableZuulProxy vs. @EnableZuulServer

@EnableZuulProxy > @EnableZuulServer, 多了路由功效。The additional filters in the "proxy" enable routing functionality.

Filters

How to Write a Route Filter

extends ZuulFilter 承接以下三类过滤器爬山涉水

  • Pre Filter
  • Route Filter
  • Post Fitler
  • 在run()中,对request、OkHttpClient、response做修改。

How Zuul Errors Work

The SendErrorFilter is only run if RequestContext.getThrowable() is not null.

It then sets specific javax.servlet.error.* attributes in the request and forwards the request to the Spring Boot error page. 如何设置该属性?
ajax央求什么管理?

Zuul Eager Application Context Loading

Ribbon clients are by default lazily loaded up by Spring Cloud on first call.Ribbon clients暗许为延迟加载

改革配置,让其在接纳运营时加载跋山涉水的近义词

zuul:
  ribbon:
    eager-load:
      enabled: true

practice

经过url映射的不二秘籍来得以达成zull的转速有局限性

stripPrefix默认为true。This means that all calls such as "/myusers/101" will be forwarded to "/101" on the "users" service.

spring.application.name=gateway-service-zuul
server.port=8888
#这里的配置表示,访问/it/** 直接重定向到http://www.ityouknow.com/**
zuul.routes.baidu.path=/it/**
zuul.routes.baidu.url=http://www.ityouknow.com/

通过serviceId(即application name)来转发

zuul:
  routes:
    producer:
      path: /wifi/**
      serviceId: wifi-service
  strip-prefix: true

zuul高可用

参数优化

  1. 为Spring Cloud Ribbon配置诉求重试
zuul.host.connect-timeout-millis 
zuul.host.socket-timeout-millis
zuul.eureka.[service id].semaphore.maxSemaphores: 128

spring.cloud.loadbalancer.retry.enabled=true

hystrix.command.default.execution.isolation.thread.timeoutInMilliseconds=10000

hello-service.ribbon.ConnectTimeout=250
hello-service.ribbon.ReadTimeout=1000

zuul存在的难点

在骨子里行使中大家会意识平素动用Zuul会存在繁多主题素材,包涵爬山涉水

  • 天性难点爬山涉水当存在大批量倡议超时后会产生Zuul阻塞,如今只能通过横向扩充Zuul实例达成对高产出的协助;

  • WebSocket的扶助难点爬山涉水Zuul中并不直接提供对WebSocket的支撑,须求增添额外的过滤器完成对WebSocket的援救;
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  • 缺少须求速率限定功能,本来就有第三方jar包提供跋山涉水的近义词zuul进行rate limit

  • #### 品质难点技术方案爬山涉水集群、高可用

    Zuul is just a stateless service with an HTTP endpoint, hence, we can have as many Zuul instances as we need.

  • zuul多个节点运维,自个儿也得以作为服务,注册到eureka上。
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High availability when client is not a Eureka Client. The Zuul instances, in this case, will be running behind a load balancer such as HAProxy, or a hardware load balancer like NetScaler:

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高可用负载均衡选型haproxy vs nginx

分选haproxy,理由如下跋山涉水的近义词

  • 从一定上采撷,haproxy组件作用单风姿洒脱,只做LB; nginx重视是web服务器,替换的是apache,同一时间负有lb的功效
  • haproxy有心跳检查评定,nginx必要集成第三方插件
  • haproxy有监督页面
  • haproxy负载均衡算法越多、更加好。
  • 支撑虚构主机

万生气勃勃顾虑LB单点难题,可利用keepalived+haproxy.

网站出现达到自然程度之后,为了进步稳固性和转账效能,能够选拔LVS、究竟LVS比Nginx/HAproxy要更安定,转发功效也越来越高。可是维护LVS对保安职员的渴求也会更加高,投入资金也更加大。

展望

zuul已经开源几年了,今后本来就有新的开源项目Spring Cloud Gateway,刚开源不久,还不成熟。从其颁发的风味,集成了劳务意识、断路器、限流等职能。

Spring Cloud Gateway features:

  • Built on Spring Framework 5, Project Reactor and Spring Boot 2.0
  • Able to match routes on any request attribute.
  • Predicates and filters are specific to routes.
  • Hystrix Circuit Breaker integration.
  • Spring Cloud DiscoveryClient integration
  • Easy to write Predicates and Filters
  • Request Rate Limiting
  • Path Rewriting

参照他事他说加以考察文献

  1. zull wiki
  2. spring-cloud-netflix官方网站手册
  3. springcloud(十)爬山涉水服务网关zuul初级篇 ----情状搭建入门参谋
  4. Zuul的高可用
  5. API GateWay(网关)那三个儿事
  6. zuul 参数调优
  7. zuul进行rate limit

tips:本文属于自个儿读书和推行进度的笔录,比非常多图和文字都粘贴自网络小说,未有申明援用请见谅!如有任何难题请留言或邮件文告,笔者会马上复苏。

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